Clinic Appointments Register with us


The Basic anatomy of the Heart

The human heart is a complex organ with four compartments that pump blood throughout the body. In addition, it carries oxygen and other vital nutrients to the cells and organs.

The myocardium is at the heart’s center, a muscular layer composed of cardiomyocytes. These cardiomyocytes contract and relax to pump blood and send it through the body. Surrounding the myocardium are three distinct layers of tissue. The endocardium is the innermost layer, a smooth membrane responsible for lubricating and preventing circulation damage. The middle layer is the middle-layer tunica media, composed of specialized muscle and elastic fibers. Finally, the outermost layer is the pericardium, a thin and flexible membrane that helps protect the heart from damage and infection.

Within the myocardium are four distinct chambers: the right atrium, the left atrium, the right ventricle, and the left ventricle. The right atrium receives oxygen-deficient deoxygenated blood from the body. The left atrium then collects oxygen-rich oxygenated blood from the lungs. These two atriums converge in the atrioventricular septum, a wall of tissue separating them. The tricuspid valve then opens to allow oxygen-deficient blood flow into the right ventricle from the right atrium. Next, the left atrium sends oxygen-rich blood to the left ventricle through the mitral valve. The right ventricle then pumps the oxygen-deficient deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery, which is responsible for transporting the blood to the lungs for oxygenation.

The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich oxygenated blood to the aorta and the rest of the body via the aortic valve. The aortic valve then opens to expel the oxygen-rich blood to the body. The heart is also equipped with four valves that open and close to control blood flow in and out of the four chambers. These valves are the tricuspid, mitral, aortic, and pulmonary valves. The tricuspid and mitral valves regulate the blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle. The aortic valve is responsible for blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Finally, the pulmonary valve regulates the blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs. The heart also contains four major blood vessels that supply the heart with deoxygenated and oxygenated blood. These are the pulmonary artery, the aorta, the superior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava. The pulmonary artery is responsible for transporting deoxygenated oxygen-poor blood from the heart’s right ventricle to the lungs. The aorta then pumps oxygen-rich oxygenated blood from the heart’s left ventricle to the entire body.

The superior vena cava is the primary vein running from the head and arms that bring deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium. The inferior vena cava runs from the lower part of the body and brings deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium. Finally, the heart contains a variety of specialized conducting tissue that carries electrical signals from the heart’s pacemaker (the sinoatrial node) throughout the various chambers and helps to regulate the heart’s beating rate. This specialized conducting tissue includes the atrioventricular node, the bundle of His, the Purkinje fibers, and the atrioventricular bundle. The anatomy of the heart is essential for life. The heart works together to ensure the body is supplied with needed oxygen and nutrients from the four chambers and four valves to the blood vessels and specialized conducting tissue.

Comments are closed.

Languages »